The winter of 1894-95 was severe with a CET of 1.2C. Here's a summary of this winter.
December 1894 was mild for the most part and the first three weeks were dominated by SWlies.
It was not until the last week, when the winds veered to the NW that colder weather arrived with frosts and snow showers to exposed areas.
18cm of snow was reported in Norfolk at the end of the month.
January started with cold northerlies and temperatures near freezing.
Troughs in the flow gave snow showers to most parts and many places had a snow cover, Oxford had 8cm by the 6th.
High pressure to the west moved across the UK and under the clear skies and with a deep snow cover, very low minima were recorded with -11C in parts of Norfolk
and -18C in parts of the Highlands. Freezing fog formed and was slow to clear, a maxima of -5C was recorded at Ross-on-Wye in freezing fog.
Milder air tried to push in from the Atlantic with a system and a heavy snowfall resulted across the UK with depths of snow of between 8 to 15cm being widely reported.
The Atlantic air finally broke through and there was a thaw resulting in flooding in a number of areas.
Temperatures were in double figures in the south, Kew recording 11C.
The NNWlies returned on the 21st with a low over the near continent and
it's active cold front moving across SE England bringing thunderstorms, snow and hail.
The northerly flow for a few days and conditions were severe over northern Scotland with heavy drifting snow and snow fell elsewhere exposed to the north wind.
At the end of January, high pressure was intensifying over Scandinavia and reached a pressure of 1049mb.
A very cold easterly flowed across the UK and most of Europe and there were severe frosts with minima of -13C at Loughborough and -15C being recorded at Chester.
Heavy snow showers came with the easterly with Yorkshire and Lincolnshire getting the brunt of the showers, South Shields was severely affected by 15 hours of continous snowfall
forcing the closure of the shipyard. Small polar lows affected the west with snowfalls, Douglas on the Isle of Man recorded 20cm of snow.
As the high over Scandinavia moved over the UK then came a phenomenally cold spell with exceptionally low minima. Temperatures of -20C or less were regularly recorded, -27.2C was recorded at Braemer on the 11th, the lowest ever UK minima, -24C at Buxton also on the 11th,
-22.2C at Rutland. -12.7C was the mean average temperature for Wakefield in Yorkshire between the 5th and the 14th. Canals, rivers, lakes and ponds froze in the severe cold, the Manchester Ship canal was iced over, there were ice floes in the Thames and the Thames estuary itself was impassable because of ice.
Many people died of hypothermia, there was mass unemployment as industries were closed by the conditions and coal supplies dwindled as transporting coal by canal or rail became impossible.
As the high began to slip westwards, milder Atlantic air slowly encroached and temperatures crept above freezing for the first time in a couple of weeks, London had its first frost free night on the 21st for three weeks. Maxima temperature were finally returning to close to normal by the end of the month.
Data for Winter 1894-95
December 1894: 5.1 (+1.3)
January 1895: 0.2 (-3.3)
February 1895:-1.8 (-6.2)
Coldest spells of the winter
6th-13th January: -1.5
26th January-1st February: -3.0
5th-18th February: -4.8
The first half of February: -4.3
The period 1st January-14th February: 0
January 1895 is the 26th coldest ever recorded
February 1895 is the second coldest February ever recorded
Coldest daily CET maximum: -4.5C 6th February
Coldest daily CET minimum: -13.5C 8th February
Mildest daily CET maximum: 11.2C on the 13th December
Photos from February 1895