A Royal Meteorological Society meeting in Birmingham next month poses a number of interesting questions, and hopefully fills in a few answers, on this topical and relevant†subject. Attendance is open to all: booking details are given at the end of the note below.†
Hope to see other UKww members there for what sounds like an interesting series of presentations on this topic.
MONDAY 19th MARCH 2007: STANDARD URBAN MEASUREMENTS
at the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham from 1100.
A meeting to discuss experiences with siting sensors to make urban measurements for a range of applications
1100- Introduction and Welcome
1105- "Scale and criteria for siting of equipment and the new WMO guidelines for urban areas" Sue Grimmond (King's College, London)" Sue Grimmond (King's College, London)
Urban areas present a challenging environment under which to take measurements that may be 'routine' in many other environments. This talk will consider issues of scale relative to the processes and applications of interest and the implications for siting instrumentation in urban areas. The new World Meteorological Organization guidelines for siting instruments in urban areas will be introduced.
1135- "Factors in siting instruments in the urban environment" Chris Hall (Met Office, Observation Networks)Chris Hall (Met Office, Observation Networks)
The presentation describes the observing systems deployed by the Met Office in the urban environment to meet requirements for operational forecasting. Some of the problems experienced are outlined and examples are given that demonstrate the impact of the environment on the measurement of temperature and wind. The presentation ends with a brief overview of plans for improving the UK observing network in the future, including the use of more remote sensing instruments and how this may impact on monitoring urban areas.
1205- "UK urban air pollution monitoring" Paul Willis (AEA Technology)Paul Willis (AEA Technology)
The siting of air quality monitors in the urban environment is key to assessing public exposure to pollution. The number of monitors, sampling height and distance from kerbside have to be balanced against the difficulties with planning permission and vandalism. Turbulence in the street canyon may also mean that highest concentrations are not always measured where you would initially expect.
1330- "Urban Measurements - Lessons from field trials and the COST 715 Action on Urban Meteorology" Doug Middleton (Met Office)Doug Middleton (Met Office)
COST 715 was a European Action which studied current knowledge and future research needs for 'Meteorology Applied to Urban Air Pollution Problems'. It brought together scientists from over 20 countries to pool their experience and to work together. This talk summarises the work of COST 715, and lessons that can be drawn for urban measurements.
1400- "Combining laboratory and theoretical modelling to aid siting and understand results" Alan Robins (Surrey University)Alan Robins (Surrey University)
The EPSRC funded DAPPLE project included field and wind tunnel measurements and computational predictions of wind fields in and above a central London street network (Marylebone Road - Gloucester Place). Some features of these measurements will be discussed to illustrate important aspects of local scale urban canopy winds and the relation between local and "ideal" reference conditions will be discussed. The essential combined role of wind tunnel and numerical simulations in planning and supporting complex field work will be emphasised using DAPPLE and previous power industry studies.
1430- "Measurements to support dispersion experiments" Janet Barlow (Reading University)Janet Barlow (Reading University)
Dispersion experiments in urban environments are a logistical and scientific challenge. During the DAPPLE campaigns of 2003 and 2004 (www.dapple.org.uk), several controlled releases of gas were conducted. This talk will cover the design behind and results from the experiments, particularly with regard to the limited number of point measurements which could be realised in the complex flow through the streets of London.
1530- "Wind measurement requirements in relation to building design" Andrew Quinn (Birmingham University)Andrew Quinn (Birmingham University)
Present design criteria for structures are based, by necessity, on a wind map approach supported in some cases by model scale studies. This, combined with the traditionally conservative approach of structural
engineers, produces safe buildings but hides a lack of understanding about the wind environment in urban areas. This has been highlighted by studies looking at the design and performance of ventilation systems for buildings as well as the events during particular storms. The challenge therefore is to develop a systematic understanding of the real wind environment, particularly turbulent high wind gusts and, paradoxically, low wind conditions.
1600- "Measuring rainfall, soil moisture and drain flow in urban areas to improve urban runoff prediction." John Packman (CEH Wallingford)John Packman (CEH Wallingford)
Design discharge rates for urban storm drainage are determined using regional rainfall statistics and a model of the urban rainfall-runoff process - covering surface detention, paved and pervious area runoff, pipeflow, and to some extent interactions with groundwater. In general, the impacts of urban development (heat islands, wind turbulence, street canyons, etc) on regional rainfall statistics are not considered, and there is no strong demand for urban climatological stations. However, hydrometeorological measurements are required to develop models of the urban runoff processes. CEH has long experience of measuring rainfall and storm sewer flow rates, and this talk will describe some of the instruments used and the issues involved (e.g. representative sites, accuracy, risks of vandalism). Besides rainfall and flow gauges, the new focus on reducing urban runoff by increasing soakaway drainage has raised the need for soil moisture monitoring, and the use of TDR probes will be described. It must be recognised that the aim of these studies is not so much a detailed definition of the processes themselves, but a sufficient understanding to provide an acceptable model of runoff rate.
1630- Meeting Ends
The Civil Engineering Dept. is a 5 minutes walk from University railway station and there is pay and display car parking 10 minutes walk away (90p all day). Registration is £10 for members of the Observing Systems Group and students of the University of Birmingham, £15 for others and includes drinks and a buffet lunch. Booking forms can be obtained from The Royal Meteorological Society at 104, Oxford Road, Reading, Berks. RG1 7LL, Tel: 0118 956 8500, Email SusanDrew@rmets.org , you can download a registration form from http://www.rmets.org/pdf/mosapp.pdf or you can book securely online at http://www.shop.rmet...cce7406af28c1d1
Further information about the meeting can be obtained from the Meeting Organiser, Andrew Overton, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org