Project Icebox Europe 2011/12
Posted 18 February 2012 - 16:37
Posted 19 February 2012 - 15:59
Iași (also historically referred to as Jassy or Iassy) is one of the largest cities and a municipality in Romania. Located in the historical Moldavia region, Iași has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Romanian social, cultural, academic and artistic life. The city was the capital of the Principality of Moldavia from 1564 to 1859, then of the United Principalities from 1859 to 1862, and the capital of Romania from 1916 to 1918.
Known as The Cultural Capital of Romania, Iași is a symbol in Romanian history. The historian Nicolae Iorga said "There should be no Romanian who does not know of it". Still referred to as The Moldavian Capital, Iași is the seat of Iași County and the main economic centre of the Romanian region of Moldavia.
As of 2011, Iași itself has a population of 263,410 (the fourth most populous Romanian city), the metropolitan area is home to about 350,000 residents, while the population of the peri-urban area exceeds 500,000 residents. Home to the first Romanian university and to the first engineering school, it is the second largest university centre in the country and accommodates over 75,000 students in 5 public and 7 private universities.
The social and cultural life revolves around the Vasile Alecsandri National Theater (the oldest in Romania), the Moldova State Philharmonic, the Opera House, the Tătărași Athenaeum, a famous Botanical Garden (the oldest and largest in Romania), the Central University Library (the oldest in Romania), the high quality cultural centres and festivals, an array of museums, memorial houses, religious and historical monuments.
Archaeological investigations attest the presence of human communities on the present territory of the city and around it as far back as the prehistoric age. Later settlements included those of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, a late Neolithic archaeological culture.
The name of the city is first officially mentioned in a document about commercial privilege granted by the Moldavian Prince (Voivode) Alexandru cel Bun to the Polish merchants of Lvov in 1408. However, as buildings older than 1408 existed and still exist (for example the Armenian Church originally believed to be built in 1395), it is believed that the city existed long before its first mentioning.
Around 1564, Prince Alexandru Lăpușneanu moved the Moldavian capital from Suceava to Iași. Between 1561 and 1563, a school and a Lutheran church were founded by the Greek adventurer Prince, Ioan Iacob Heraclid.
In 1640, Vasile Lupu established the first school in which the mother-tongue replaced Greek, and set up a printing press in the Byzantine Trei Ierarhi Church (Church of the Three Hierarchs; built 1635–39). In 1643, the first volume ever printed in Moldavia was issued in Iași.
The city was burned down by the Tatars in 1513, by the Ottomans in 1538, by the Imperial Russian troops in 1686. In 1734, it was hit by the plague.
Through the Peace of Iași, the sixth Russo-Turkish War was brought to a close in 1792. A Greek revolutionary maneuver and occupation under Alexander Ypsilanti (Αλέξανδρος Υψηλάντης) and the Filiki Eteria (Φιλική Εταιρία) (1821, at the beginning of the Greek War of Independence) led to the storming of the city by the Turks in 1822. In 1844 there was a severe conflagration.
Between 1564 and 1859, the city was the capital of Moldavia; then, between 1859 and 1862, both Iași and Bucharest were de-facto capitals of the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. In 1862, when the union of the two principalities was recognized under the name of Romania, the national capital was established in Bucharest.
Located in the North-East of Romania, between the Iași Ridge (Romanian: Coasta Iașilor) (the northern-most hill formation of the Bârlad Plateau) and the Jijia Plain, Iași used to be the crossroads place of the commercial routes that passed through Moldavia coming from Kingdom of Poland, Habsburg Monarchy, Tsardom of Russia and Constantinople.
The city lies on the Bahlui River, a tributary of the Jijia (tributary of the Prut). The surrounding country is one of uplands and woods, featuring the monasteries of Bârnova, Bucium, Cetățuia, Frumoasa, Galata (with nearby Nicolina mineral springs), Hlincea, and the dendrologic park of Repedea. Iași itself stands amid vineyards and gardens, partly on hills, partly in the in-between valley.
It is a common belief that Iași is built on seven hills (coline in Romanian): Cetățuia, Galata, Copou-Aurora, Bucium-Păun, Șorogari, Repedea and Breazu, thus triggering comparisons with Rome.
Iași has a humid, continental-type climate (Köppen climate classification "Dfb" — summer wetter than winter, European subtype) with four distinct seasons. Summers are warm with temperatures sometimes exceeding 32 °C (90 °F) while winters are cold and windy with moderate snowfall and temperatures at night sometimes dropping below −10 °C (14 °F). Average monthly precipitation ranges from about 25 mm (1 in) in October to 100 mm (4 in) in June.
Posted 20 February 2012 - 16:02
Surskoye (Russian: Сурское) small town , administrative center of the Surskoye district of Ul'yanovsk region Russia. The population is 7118 inhabitants (2007).
The region is remarkable in terms of legends. In the center of the village there is a mountain (or rather chalk hill seventy feet in height), that has its own history. In the XVI century, the tiny village, populated only reluctantly by mainly escaped soldiers and thieves was besieged by Kuban Tatars but they did not attack as they had portents and visions of a darkness that would destroy them if they approached. Later an icon of St Nicholas of Myra was found on the hill, which was duly proclaimed a miracle. So the mountain has become a symbol of salvation and so began settlement of the area, as Promzino (ancient name of Surskoye) which was at that time an outpost of progress of the Russian state in the East. Settlement around the hill was then founded in 1552 by Ivan the Terrible - incidentally, when his army moved to the east in order to conquer the Khanate of Kazan and Astrakhan.
The hill became a place of pilgrimage and led to settlement by rather more virtuous people such as artists seeking inspiration. After the revolution, an attempt was made to destroy the chapel by an ideological tractor driver determined to wipe out the religious ideology and the old chapel which had been built on top of the hill, but the tractor slipped down and overturned on its ascent; the salvation of the chapel leading to claims of another miracle...
Posted 21 February 2012 - 15:57
Mariupol (Ukrainian: Маріуполь]; Russian: Мариу́поль; Greek: Μαριούπολη), formerly known as Zhdanov (Ukrainian and Russian: Жда́нов), is a port city in southeastern Ukraine. It is located on the coast of the Azov Sea, at the mouth of the Kalmius River. Mariupol is the largest city in Priazovye - a geographical region around Azov Sea, divided by Russia and Ukraine - and is also a popular sea resort. Administratively, the city is located in the Donetsk oblast and historically formed a part of the broader Donbas region. As of June 1, 2010, the city population stood at 490,063 people.
Mariupol is an important industrial centre and seaport. Two of its steel mills - Ilyich Iron and Steel Works and Azovstal - are among the largest in the country and make up a significant part of Ukraine's total exports. «Azovmash», a machine-building concern, located in Mariupol, is the largest company of its kind in Ukraine. Overall, Mariupol industry accounts for 37.5% of Donetsk oblast’s total exports and about 7.0% of all Ukraine’s exports.
From 1948 to 1989 the city was named Zhdanov in honour of Andrei Zhdanov.
Mariupol was known from the beginning of the 16th century as the Cossack fortress Kalmius, but only became a real city after the migration of the Crimean Greeks to Priazovye from 1778 - 1780.
In 1779 it became the first city in the present Donetsk Oblast to receive city status. The railway, a new big port, and a metal works appeared at the end of the 19th century. The city has undergone much industrialisation, such as the appearance of a large "Azovstal" plant.
Mariupol was occupied by Nazi Germany from (1941–1943). It was one of two Soviet cities where Hitler stayed for a night (the other being Vinnitsa). The war caused tremendous damage to the city, with its factories and port facilities laid to waste and a significant part of population killed. Now it is again a major centre of industry in the Donetsk Oblast, and a resort destination. It is recognised as the centre of Greek culture in Ukraine.
Ukrainians make less than half of the population of the city, the second greatest ethnicity of Mariupol is Russian. Other peoples include Greeks, Jews, Armenians, Belarusians, etc. The city is home to the largest Greek population in Ukraine ("Greeks of Priazovye"): 21,900 with 31,400 more in the six nearby rural areas, totaling to about 70% of the Greek population of the area and 60% for the country.
Mariupol is to the south of the Donetsk area, on the coast of the Azov Sea, in a mouth of the river Kalmius. The city occupies an area of 166.0 km (103.1 mi) ² (64 mi²) (with suburbs, i.e., the territories subordinated to the Mariupol city council – 244.0 km (151.6 mi) ² (94.2 mi²)). The down-town area is 106.0 km (65.9 mi) ² (40.9 mi²), the area of parks and gardens is 80.6 km (50.1 mi) ² (31.1 mi²). The city is mainly built on land that is made of Solonetzic chernozems, with a significant amount of underground subsoil waters that frequently leads to landslides.
There is a moderate-continental climate with recurring droughts and dry winds in the summer and cool with fog - in the winter. Annual precipitation is 400 mm (15.75 in) a year. Agro climatic conditions allow the cultivation in suburbs of Mariupol of thermophilic agricultural crops with long vegetative periods (sunflower, melons, grapes, etc.). However water resources in the region are insufficient, and consequently ponds and water basins are used for the needs of the population and industry. Direction of the wind in the winter is mainly from the east, in the summer - northerly.
Average temperature of air in January 22.6 °F (−5.2 °C), in July 85 °F (29.4 °C). Absolute maximum of temperature of air in the summer is 104 °F (40 °C); a minimum in the winter is −25.6 °F (−32 °C).
Mariupol wins first place in Ukraine on volumes of emissions of harmful substances by the industrial enterprises. Last years ecology problems have started to be engaged by leading enterprises of city. For last 15 years industrial emissions have fallen almost by half.
The Sea of Azov near the city is in distress. The catch of fish in the area was reduced by many orders of magnitude over the last 30–40 years.
Posted 22 February 2012 - 15:13
Posted 23 February 2012 - 18:01
Posted 24 February 2012 - 17:01
Karesuando (Finnish Karesuvanto or Kaaresuvanto, Sami Karesuanto, Gárasavvon or Karasavvon) is the northernmost locality situated in Kiruna Municipality, Norrbotten County, Sweden with 303 inhabitants in 2010.
On the Finnish side of the river, the Finnish village of Karesuvanto is located (pop. about 140). According to Finnish tradition they are one and the same village (with pop. about 470), but they are usually considered different, since there is a national border in between (although both are called Karesuvanto in Finnish).
The village got its first buildings in 1670, when Måns Mårtensson Karesuando, called "Hyvä Maunu Martinpoika" in Finnish and "Good Maunu, Son of Martin" in English, bought land from Sami Henrik Nilsson Nikkas. The vicar and botanist Lars Levi Laestadius worked in Karesuando where he founded laestadianism named after him.
The area is traditionally Finnish speaking and the border was drawn for political reasons in 1809, not because of any cultural or any other border existing at that time. Later of course a cultural and language difference has grown because of school and church influence.
Hunting and fishing knives are produced in Karesuando by Karesuando Kniven who also make gift products and jewelry. The knives have their origins in the hostile Arctic climate. The raw materials are taken from the surrounding country. Leather, horn and bone from reindeer, and curly-grained birchwood, are the main components.
Karesuando/Kaaresuvanto is the northernmost point on the European route E45.
Posted 25 February 2012 - 19:15
Posted 27 February 2012 - 15:28
Some weather info for Kautokeino thanks to www.yr.no
Last 30 days: Average temperature was -17.4 °C, which is 2.3 °C below the normal. Highest temperature was 1.9 °C (11 February), and the lowest was -39.7 °C (07 February). The total precipitation was 19.3 mm. Highest daily precipitation was 5.5 mm (15 February) (measured between 07 -07 local time). Highest wind speed was 12.4 m/s (18 February).
Last 12 full months: Highest temperature was 27.0 °C (9. Jul. 2011) and the lowest -41.7 °C (17. Feb. 2011). Highest daily precipitation was 26.2 mm (5. Jun. 2011). Maximum snow depth was 77 cm (12. Feb. 2011).
Posted 28 February 2012 - 17:52
Trivia: Natalie Portman's paternal ancestors lived in Rzeszów-Jasionka
Rzeszów lies in the north temperate zone and has a continental climate with four distinct seasons. It is characterised by a significant variation between hot summers and cold, snowy winters. Average temperatures in summer range from 18 °C (64 °F) to 19.6 °C (67 °F) and in winter from −2.1 °C (28 °F) to 0 °C (32 °F). The average annual temperature is 8.9 °C (48 °F). In summer temperatures often exceed 25 °C (77 °F), and sometimes even 30 °C (86 °F), while winter drops to −5 °C (23 °F) at night and about 0 °C (32 °F) at day; during very cold nights the temperature drops to −15 °C (5 °F). In view of the fact that Rzeszów lies near the Carpathian Mountains, there is sometimes a halny – a föhn wind, when the temperature can rise rapidly.
|Climate data for Rzeszów|
|Average high °C (°F)||0|
|Average low °C (°F)||−4|
|Rainfall mm (inches)||22.4|
|Source: MSN Weather|
Posted 29 February 2012 - 18:14
Posted 01 March 2012 - 17:50
Shenkursk (Russian: Шенку́рск) is a town and the administrative center of Shenkursky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Vaga River. Municipally, it is incorporated as Shenkurskoye Urban Settlement of Shenkursky Municipal District. Population: 5,702 (2010 Census preliminary results); 6,151 (2002 Census); 7,424 (1989 Census).
Shenkursk was first mentioned in documents of Novgorod merchants in 1229. In 1315, it was bought by a Novgorod posadnik. Ivan the Terrible referred to this location as the town of Vaga and included it into his oprichnina. At that time, there was a timber fort and a residence of local bishops.
Tsar Feodor I made a grant of Shenkursk to his brother-in-law, Boris Godunov, who bequeathed it to his own son-in-law, Johan of Schleswig-Holstein. The Romanovs presented the area to Prince Dmitry Troubetskoy as his votchina. Upon his death, the town was returned to the crown. In 1640–1643, the Tsar ordered a new fortress to be built in Shenkursk. Catherine the Great chartered Shenkursk in 1780, and Shenkursk became the administrative center of the newly established Shenkursky Uyezd in Vologda Viceroyalty (from 1796, in Arkhangelsk Governorate).
Shenkursk played a prominent role in the Russian Civil War. In the autumn of 1918, about six thousand British and American troops advanced south of Shenkursk. On January 19-25, the Bolshevik troops staged a counteroffensive, known as the Battle of Shenkursk. Three thousand troops, split into three armies, advancing from three sides, cut Shenkursk off, and moved the front area 90 kilometers (56 mi) north of Shenkursk.
Shenkursky District remained in Arkhangelsk Governorate until 1929, when several governorates were merged into Northern Krai. In 1936, the krai was transformed into Northern Oblast. In 1937, Northern Oblast was split into Arkhangelsk Oblast and Vologda Oblast.
The town contains twenty-one objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local importance. Most of these are merchant houses built prior to 1917 and the remains of the former Holy Trinity Monastery.
Posted 02 March 2012 - 18:16
Kryvyi Rih (Кривий Ріг, Rus. Krivoy Rog , Eng. Kryvyi Rih ) - city in Dnipropetrovsk region , the largest city of Ukraine which is not a regional center. Population about 671 000 inhabitants. Large industrial and cultural center of Ukraine.
Primitive people on the territory of modern Rih emerged during the Stone Age . These are hostrokonechnyk found during excavations in the village Rodionivka , axes found in mizhrichchyah Saksahan and Inhulets.
The more advanced tribes were the "Catacomb culture" , which appeared in Rih in the first half of the second millennium BC. They were mainly pastoralists . In the XV-XII centuries BC there are pastoral-agricultural tribes. The bronze-casting craft reaches its peak in this period. At the beginning of the first millennium BC throughout the Dnieper there are artifacts of iron, trading possibly to the northern Black Sea coast , where there were in the VII century BC nomadic Scythian tribes. In IX-VII centuries BC in the surroundings lived Cimmerians.
In 2nd century BC in the steppes of Rih Sarmatians moved into the region with their herds. Archaeological research proves the existence of trade relations between the Sarmatians, who lived at the time this territory, and the ancient Greeks, particularly the island of Rhodes.
Climate - steppe, Atlantic-continental, characterized by hot dry summers and moderately mild with frequent thaws in winter. Average frost-free period is 182 days, the longest 224 days.
Most of the precipitation falls during the warm half of the year ( April - October ) - 268 mm. The daily maximum rainfall (90 mm) was observed in the June 1913.
Number of days with snow cover = 69. The average of the largest winter snow height is 10 cm, maximum = 30 cm
The dominant wind direction: in the warm season - North (18.4% of days), during the cold period - East (17.6% of days).
Maximum speed of the wind - 24 m / s per year, 28-29 m / s every 5-10 years, 30-31 m / s every 15-20 years.
|Climate Kryvyi Rih|
|Average maximum, ° C||-2||0||4||13||21||24||26||25||20||13||5||0||12|
|Average temperature, ° C||-5||-3.6||1.3||9.5||15.9||19.5||21.1||20.5||15.6||8.8||3.0||-1.6||8.8|
|Average minimum, ° C||-7||-6||-1||5||10||13||15||14||11||4||A||-3||5|
Posted 03 March 2012 - 17:01
Posted 04 March 2012 - 13:55
Kostroma (Russian: Кострома́) is a historic city and the administrative center of Kostroma Oblast, Russia. A part of the Golden Ring of Russian towns, it is located at the confluence of the Volga and Kostroma Rivers. Population: 268,617 (2010 Census preliminary results); 278,750 (2002 Census); 278,414 (1989 Census). It is served by Kostroma Airport.
The city was first recorded in the chronicles for the year 1213, but historians believe it could have been founded by Yury Dolgoruky more than half a century earlier. Like other towns of the Eastern Rus, Kostroma was sacked by the Mongols in 1238. It then constituted a small principality, under leadership of Prince Vasily the Drunkard, a younger brother of the famous Alexander Nevsky. Upon inheriting the grand ducal title in 1271, Vasily didn't leave the town for Vladimir, and his descendants ruled Kostroma for another half a century, until the town was bought by Ivan I of Moscow.
As one of the northernmost towns of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Kostroma served for grand dukes as a place of retreat when enemies besieged Moscow in 1382, 1408, and 1433. In 1375, the town was looted by Novgorod pirates (ushkuiniks). The spectacular growth of the city in the 16th century may be attributed to the establishment of trade connections with English and Dutch merchants (Muscovy Company) through the northern port of Archangel. Boris Godunov had the Ipatiev and Epiphany monasteries rebuilt in stone. The construction works were finished just in time for the city to witness some of the most dramatic events of the Time of Troubles.
Kostroma was twice ravaged by the Poles; it took a six-month siege to expel them from the Ipatiev monastery. The heroic peasant Ivan Susanin became a symbol of the city's resistance to foreign invaders; several monuments to him may be seen in Kostroma. The future Tsar, Michael Romanov, also lived at the monastery. It was here that an embassy from Moscow offered him the Russian crown in 1612.
It is understandable why the Romanov Tsars regarded Kostroma as their special protectorate. The Ipatievsky monastery was visited by many of them, including Nicholas II, the last Russian Tsar. The monastery had been founded in the early 14th century by a Tatar prince, ancestor of the Godunov family. The Romanovs had the magnificent Trinity Cathedral rebuilt in 1652; its frescoes and iconostasis are a thing of beauty. A wooden house of Mikhail Romanov is still preserved in the monastery. There are also several old wooden structures transported to the monastery walls from distant districts of the Kostroma Oblast. Town status was granted in 1719.
In 1773, Kostroma was devastated by a great fire. Afterwards the city was rebuilt with streets radiating from a single focal point near the river. They say that Empress Catherine dropped her fan on the city map, and told the architects to follow her design. One of the best preserved examples of the 18th century town planning, Kostroma retains some elegant structures in a "provincial neoclassical" style. These include a governor's palace, a fire tower, a rotunda on the Volga embankment, and an arcaded central market with a merchant church in the center.
The climate is temperate continental with a slight moderating influence from the Atlantic
|The climate of Kostroma|
|The absolute maximum, ° C||6.6||6.5||17.9||27.6||31.9||32.6||37.1||37.3||30.2||22.9||12.4||9.4||37.3|
|The average maximum, ° C||-6.2||-5.5||0.8||9.9||17.8||21.5||24.0||21.2||15.0||7.5||-0.7||-4.7||8.4|
|The average temperature, ° C||-9.4||-9.0||-3||4.9||12.0||16.2||18.7||16.0||10.4||4.2||-3.1||-7.5||4.2|
|The average minimum, ° C||-12.5||-12.2||-6.4||0.9||7.0||11.5||13.9||11.8||6.8||1.6||-5.4||-10.3||0.6|
|The absolute minimum, ° C||-46.4||-39.3||-31.1||-19||-5.5||-2.7||3.7||1.4||-5.8||-18.5||-28.8||-44.4||-46.4|
|Source: Weather and Climate|
Posted 04 March 2012 - 16:51