Project Icebox Europe 2011/12
Posted 14 November 2011 - 13:22
L'viv looks like a very interesting city:
Lviv (Ukrainian: Львів L’viv; Polish: Lwów; Russian: Львов, L'vov; German: Lemberg; Latin: Leopolis; is a city in western Ukraine. The city is regarded as one of the main cultural centres of today's Ukraine and historically has also been a major Polish and Jewish cultural center, as Poles and Jews were the two main ethnicities of the city until the outbreak of World War II and the following Holocaust and Polish population transfers (1944–1946). The historical heart of Lviv with its old buildings and cobblestone roads has survived World War II and ensuing Soviet presence largely unscathed.
Lviv was founded in 1256 in Red Ruthenia by King Danylo Halytskyi of the Ruthenian principality of Halych-Volhynia, and named in honour of his son, Lev. Together with the rest of Red Ruthenia, Lviv was captured by the Kingdom of Poland in 1349 during the reign of Polish king Casimir III the Great. Lviv belonged to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland 1349–1772, the Austrian Empire 1772–1918 and the Second Polish Republic 1918–1939. With the Invasion of Poland at the outbreak of the second World War, the city of Lviv with adjacent land were annexed and incorporated into the Soviet Union, becoming part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1939 to 1941. Between July 1941 and July 1944 Lviv was under German occupation and was located in the General Government. In July 1944 it was captured by the Soviet Red Army and the Polish Home Army. According to the agreements of the Yalta Conference, Lviv was again integrated into the Ukrainian SSR. Most of the Poles living in Lviv were resettled into Polish territories annexed from Germany.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the city remained a part of the now independent Ukraine, for which it currently serves as the administrative centre of Lviv Oblast, and is designated as its own raion (district) within that oblast.
The city is expecting a sharp increase in the number of foreign visitors next summer for the 2012 European Soccer Championships, and as a result a major new airport terminal is being built. Lviv is one of 8 Polish and Ukrainian cities that is co-hosting the group stages of the tournament.
see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lviv for vastly more information.
This post has been edited by Big Dave's Gusset: 14 November 2011 - 13:31
Posted 15 November 2011 - 15:15
Russia with its vast area never seems to lack for serious cold somewhere and the last two days it has been in the far south between the Black and Caspian Seas, and if you think today's coldest spot Mineral'Nye Vody looks like it means "Mineral Water" - you'd be right...
N.B. Date on the image should be 15th November...
Mineral'nye-Vody (Russian: Минера́льные Во́ды; lit. mineral waters) is a town in Stavropol Krai, Russia, which lies along the Kuma River and the main rail line between Rostov-on-Don and Baku (Azerbaijan). Population: 76,715 (2010 Census preliminary results);75,644 (2002 Census); 70,961 (1989 Census).
Mineral'nye Vody serves as a gateway to spas with Caucasian Mineral Waters and curative muds. It has an airport connecting the town with some other major Russian destinations as well as some international destinations.
This post has been edited by Big Dave's Gusset: 15 November 2011 - 15:43
Posted 16 November 2011 - 15:18
Ukraine and Austria had ice days but ot cold enough to get into the 10 scoring positions, and some really quite cool conditions in the French region of Alsace-Lorraine too as well as the North Sea coasts.
No changes in the Top 10 locations league so just the daily scores and the nations ranking
Posted 16 November 2011 - 23:20
BDG, I know you don't take into account minor stations that don't appear on Ogimet, but there has been some with ice days, recently, in Alsace and in Lorraine regions.
This post has been edited by MorganeLanesle: 16 November 2011 - 23:23
Posted 17 November 2011 - 14:26
Day 32: Today in the ever-changing milder/colder weather in northern Europe it is Finland's turn to miss out on ice days although Norway and Sweden has some very cold weather lasting the 24 hours. This new method is certainly throwing up some surprises as the pools of cold move around - today Slovakia and Hungary are the "beneficiaries" and get their first scoring entries. Germany, Poland and Austria also recorded ice days but not cold enough for points and in Austria's case many locations above the 500m asl threshold. Donets'k is the only location in the Top 10 to score points today.
Posted 18 November 2011 - 13:02
And a "feature" today, the criteria for this is pretty random - anywhere that scores points on the day that has something of genreal interest
Piešťany (German: Pistyan; Hungarian: Pöstyén, Polish: Pieszczany) is a town in Slovakia. It is located in the western part of the country within the Trnava Region and is the seat of its own district. It is the biggest and best known spa town in Slovakia and has around 30,000 inhabitants.
Piešťany is situated in the western part of Slovakia, in the valley of the Váh river, at an elevation of 162 m (531.50 ft). The Považský Inovec mountains form the eastern boundary of this part of the Váh valley. The highest hill of these mountains, Inovec 1,042 m (3,418.64 ft), is about 25 km (16 mi) north of the town. The hills immediately east of the town (10 km (6 mi) away) reach a height of about 700 m (2,296.59 ft). On the western side, the valley boundary is formed by the Little Carpathians, which are somewhat lower and further away from the town. The valley is open to the south, and thus has a warm and sunny temperate climate.
Most of the town is located on the right bank of the river. South of the town is the Sĺňava water reservoir created by a dam on the Váh river. The artificial canal Biskupický kanál and the main river branch join in the town. Another short branch of the river (Obtokové rameno) creates the Spa Island.
The hills of Považský Inovec are mostly covered with deciduous forests. These consist of oak and hornbeam in the lower elevations, and beech in the higher elevations. The Váh valley is used for agriculture. The main products are cereals, sugar beet, animal feed, and pork.
Piešťany is located 75 km north-east of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, and 30 km north-east of the local regional seat Trnava. Upstream from Piešťany on the Váh river are the towns Nové Mesto nad Váhom (19 km north of Piešťany) and Trenčín (40 km north-east); 17 km downstream is Hlohovec.
Piešťany is located on the route of the D1 motorway from Bratislava to Žilina with connections to Vienna and Brno. The main railway route from Bratislava to Žilina and Košice also goes through the town. The town has an airport, mostly used for international charter flights for spa clients (10,000 passengers in 2007). The municipality operates a local public transport system with 11 bus routes (as of 2008).
The first human settlement in the area is dated to the prehistoric times, about 80,000 years ago. People were attracted to the site by abundance of game in the vicinity of the thermal springs that did not freeze in winter.
A small female statue called Venus of Moravany was found in the nearby village Moravany nad Váhom. It is made of mammoth ivory and is dated to 22,800 BC. It currently resides in the Bratislava Castle museum. In another nearby village, Krakovany-Stráže, a treasure consisting of luxury items made of glass, bronze, silver, and gold was discovered in three graves from 200 - 300 AD. The surroundings of Piešťany also include the Great Moravian castle of Ducové.
Piešťany was first mentioned in written records in 1113 (under the name Pescan). At that time it consisted of several smaller settlements. The medicinal springs were already popular in the Middle Ages. They were visited by the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus.
The first book mentioning the Piešťany springs was De admirandis Hungariae aquis hypomnemation (About the Miraculous Waters of the Hungarian Monarchy) by Georgius Wernher, published in 1549 in Basel. In the 16th century, the Piešťany spa was also mentioned by two prominent physicians, Johann Crato de Crafheim (who served to several Holy Roman Emperors) and Andrea Baccius Elpidianus (a personal surgeon of the Pope). The first monography (Schediasma de Thermis Postheinsibus by Ján Justus Torkoš) was published in 1745. But in the 16th and 17th centuries, Piešťany also suffered from Turkish raids and anti-Habsburg uprisings.
Throughout the centuries Piešťany was owned by several noble families; the last of them, the Erdődys, owned the area from 1720 to 1848, and the spa until 1940. The Erdődy family built the first spa buildings in 1778. They were damaged by a destructive flood in 1813. In 1820 the spa buildings were expanded and remodeled in neo-classical style and named Napoleon spa. The Erdődy family also established the Spa park in this period. In the years 1889 to 1940 the Winter family rented the spa from the Erdődys and brought it to international fame. The Winters improved spa treatment as well as accommodation and entertainment for visitors. They built several spa buildings and hotels.
The spa attracted many aristocratic visitors, including Ludwig van Beethoven. In 1917, three monarchs (Wilhelm II of Germany, Karl I of Austria-Hungary, and Ferdinand I of Bulgaria) orchestrated their war strategy during the negotiations in the Thermia Palace hotel.
In 1945 Piešťany received the official status of a town. In 1959, Sĺňava water reservoir was built south of the town. In the late 1960s and 1970s more spa buildings were built. In 1973 the village of Banka, located on the left bank of the Váh river, was amalgamated with Piešťany, but it regained independence after a referendum in 1995. In 1996 the town became the seat of a district.
On January 4, 1987, at the final match in the World Junior Championships of ice hockey between Canada and the Soviet Union there was a bench-clearing brawl, now famously known as the Punch-up in Piešťany. Both teams were disqualified from competition as a result.
On July 5, 2001 three members of the Real Irish Republican Army were arrested in Piešťany. They were lured into a trap by agents of the British Security Service MI5 who were posing as arms dealers from Iraq.
Because of frequent floods in the past, most buildings are dated to the 19th and 20th century. The most notable exception are the ruins of a medieval monastery from the 13th century. The Napoleon Spa is a complex of Neoclassicist spa buildings built between 1822 and 1862. The Kolonádový most bridge, constructed by Emil Belluš in 1930-33, is a preeminent functionalist construction with many precious art objects.
The Piešťany spa has a capacity of two thousand beds (as of 2004) and treats over forty thousand patients a year. More than 60% of the clients are foreigners (mostly from Germany, the Czech Republic, Israel, Arab countries, and Austria). The spa specializes in treatment of chronic rheumatic and arthritic diseases and post-accident lesions of joints and bones.
The spa is located on the Spa Island between two branches of the Váh river, at the site of several hot springs with temperatures of 67–69 °C (153–156 °F). The water originates in a tectonic break at 2,000 meters depth. The sulfate–carbonate water from the springs is used in pools and tubs. Sulfurous mud extracted from the bed of a side channel of the river is also used for treatment in the form of thermal mud pools with temperature 39 °C (102 °F) and for partial and full body packs. Spring water and mud therapy is complemented by electrotherapy, exercise, massage, medication, and diet.
In the summer tourist season, the town hosts several cultural events. An annual summer music festival, established in 1955, takes place in the Piešťany arts centre. This venue, with a seating capacity of 622, also offers other concerts and theatre shows. Country Lodenica is a festival of folk and country music established in 1999. It takes place south of the town, on the shores of Sĺňava water reservoir.
Between 1967 and 1993 the city was the site of an annual sculpture exhibition in the Spa Park. This tradition was renewed in 2005 and 2008.
Piešťany also has several museums. The Balneological Museum focuses on archeology, history and ethnography of the region, as well as the history of Slovakia's spas in general. It was established in 1933 by the Winter family. Another small museum commemorates the life of the Slovak poet Ivan Krasko, who lived in Piešťany from 1945 to 1958. Finally, a new museum at the airport exhibits a collection related to the Slovak military history.
Posted 18 November 2011 - 13:46
They cool it down to 32 - 38 °C in the various types of thermal baths apparently, here you go then if you want to book up http://www.spapiestany.sk/en/medical-and-spa-treatment?sid=
I could live without the mud packs TBH though applying to a suitable subject looks like fun
This post has been edited by Big Dave's Gusset: 18 November 2011 - 13:47
Posted 19 November 2011 - 13:35
Vorkuta takes over first place and Russia accounts for 7 of the top 10 locations. With such a big head start it's difficult to see Sweden and Norway catching up Russia in the national rankings already, even with months to go yet.
http://en.wikipedia....iki/Cluj-Napoca has a vast amount to say about Cluj-Napoca and these are merely extracts:
Cluj-Napoca (German: Klausenburg; Hungarian: Kolozsvár; Medieval Latin: Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; Yiddish: קלויזנבורג, Kloiznburg), commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country. Geographically, it is roughly equidistant from Bucharest (441 km / 276 mi), Budapest (409 km / 256 mi) and Belgrade (465 km / 291 mi). Located in the Someşul Mic River valley, the city is considered the unofficial capital to the historical province of Transylvania. In 1790–1848 and 1861–1867, it was the official capital of the Grand Principality of Transylvania.
As of 2010, 305,636 inhabitants live within the city limits, marking a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census. The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area has a population of 379,705 people, while the population of the peri-urban area (Romanian: zona periurbană) exceeds 400,000 residents. Approximately 60,000 Hungarians live in Cluj-Napoca.
Cluj-Napoca experienced a decade of decline during the 1990s, its international reputation suffering from the policies of its mayor of the time, Gheorghe Funar. Today, the city is one of the most important academic, cultural, industrial and business centres in Romania. Among other institutions, it hosts the country's largest university, Babeş-Bolyai University, with its famous botanical garden; nationally renowned cultural institutions; as well as the largest Romanian-owned commercial bank. According to the American magazine InformationWeek, Cluj-Napoca is quickly becoming Romania's technopolis.
The first written mention of its name – as a Royal Borough – was in 1213 under the Latin name Castrum Clus. Despite the fact that Clus as a county name was recorded in the 1173 document Thomas comes Clusiensis,[ it is believed that the county's designation derives from the name of the castrum, which might have existed prior to its first mention in 1213, and not vice versa. With respect to the name of this camp, it is widely accepted as a derivation from the Latin term clausa – clusa, meaning "closed place", "strait", "ravine". Similar senses are attributed to the Slavic term kluč and the German Klause – Kluse (meaning mountain pass or weir). An alternative hypothesis relates the name of the city to its first magistrate, Miklus – Miklós / Kolos.
Possible etymologies for Napoca or Napuca include the names of some Dacian tribes such as the Naparis or Napaei, the Greek term napos (νάπος), meaning "timbered valley" or the Indo-European root *snā-p- (Pokorny 971-2), "to flow, to swim, damp". Independent of these hypotheses, scholars agree that the name of the settlement predates the Roman conquest (AD 106).
The Roman Empire conquered Dacia in AD 101 and 106, during the rule of Trajan, and the Roman settlement Napoca, established thereafter, is first recorded on a milestone discovered in 1758 in the vicinity of the city. Trajan's successor Hadrian granted Napoca the status of municipium as municipium Aelium Hadrianum Napocenses. Later, in the 2nd century AD, the city gained the status of a colonia as Colonia Aurelia Napoca. Napoca became a provincial capital of Dacia Porolissensis and thus the seat of a procurator. The colonia was evacuated in 274 by the Romans. There are no references to urban settlement on the site for the better part of a millennium thereafter.
At the beginning of the Middle Ages, two groups of buildings existed on the current site of the city: the wooden fortress at Cluj-Mănăştur (Kolozsmonostor) and the civilian settlement developed around the current Piaţa Muzeului (Museum Place) in the city centre. Although the precise date of the conquest of Transylvania by the Hungarians is not known, the earliest Hungarian artifacts found in the region are dated to the first half of the 10th century. In any case, after that time, the city became part of the Kingdom of Hungary.
In the autumn of 1918, as World War I drew to a close, Cluj became a centre of revolutionary activity, headed by Amos Frâncu. On October 28, 1918, he made an appeal for the organisation of the "union of all Romanians". Thirty-nine delegates were elected from Cluj to attend the proclamation of the union of Transylvania with the Kingdom of Romania in Alba-Iulia on December 1, 1918, later acknowledged internationally by the Treaty of Trianon.
Cluj-Napoca has a continental climate, characterised by warm dry summers and cold winters. The climate is influenced by the city's proximity to the Apuseni Mountains, as well as by urbanisation. Some West-Atlantic influences are present during winter and autumn. Winter temperatures are often below 0 °C (32 °F), even though they rarely drop below −10 °C (14 °F). On average, snow covers the ground for 65 days each winter. In summer, the average temperature is approximately 18 °C (64 °F) (the average for July and August), despite the fact that temperatures sometimes reach 35 °C (95 °F) to 40 °C (104 °F) in mid-summer in the city centre. Although average precipitation and humidity during summer is low, there are infrequent yet heavy and often violent storms. During spring and autumn, temperatures vary between 13 °C (55 °F) to 18 °C (64 °F), and precipitation during this time tends to be higher than in summer, with more frequent yet milder periods of rain.
Posted 20 November 2011 - 14:41
Extracts from http://en.wikipedia....wiki/Kragujevac
Kragujevac (Serbian Cyrillic: Крагујевац]) is the fourth largest city in Serbia, the main city of the Šumadija region and the administrative centre of Šumadija District. It is situated on the banks of the Lepenica River. According to official,results of the 2011 census, the city has a population of 147,281 inhabitants, while municipality has a population of 177,468.
Kragujevac was the first capital of modern Serbia (1818–1839), and the first constitution in the Balkans was proclaimed in this city in 1835. Further on, the first full- fledged university in the newly independent Serbia was founded in 1838, preceded by the first grammar school (Gimnazija), Printworks (both in 1833), professional National theatre (1835) and the Military academy (1837).
Belgrade took the lead by becoming the seat of the throne in 1841. The University of Kragujevac was not reestablished until 1976. Contemporary Kragujevac is known for its weapons, munition, and Zastava Automobiles company.
The name of the town derived from the archaic Serbian word "kraguj", which is a name used for a particular species of hawk, thus the name means "hawk's nesting place". Interestingly, old maps show the name as Krakow.
Kragujevac experienced a lot of historical turbulence, not always without severe casualties. Over 200 archaeological sites in Šumadija confirm that the region's first human settlements occurred 40,000 years ago, during the Paleolithic era. Kragujevac was first mentioned in the medieval period as related to the public square built in a settlement, while the first written mention of the city was in the Turkish Tapu-Defter in 1476. Turkish documents from the 15th century refer to it as a "village of Kragujevdza". The town itself gained prominence during the Ottoman period (1459–1804) as the central point in the Belgrade Pashaluk.
It began to prosper after Serbia's liberation from Turkish rule in 1818, when Prince Miloš Obrenović proclaimed it the capital of the new Serbian State and built the Amidža Konak. The first Serbian constitution was proclaimed here in 1835 and the first idea of independent electoral democracy. The first law on the printing press was passed in Kragujevac in 1870. Kragujevac, the capital, was developing and cherishing modern, progressive, free ideas and resembled many European capitals of that time. Kragujevac became the cultural and educational center of Serbia. Important institutions built during that time include Serbia's first secondary school (Gimnazija), first pharmacy, and first printing press. Kragujevac gave rise to many international scholars, professors, academics, scientists, artists and statesmen.
Kragujevac underwent a number of ordeals, the worst probably having been the October massacre during World War II. The Kragujevac massacre was the slaughter of 2,300 to 5,000 civilians—mostly Serbs and Roma— by Nazi soldiers between 19–21 October 1941.
In the post-war period, Kragujevac developed more industry. Its main exports were passenger cars, trucks and industrial vehicles, hunting arms, industrial chains, leather, and textiles. The biggest industry, and the city's main employer was Zastava, which employed tens of thousands. The industry suffered under economic sanctions during the Milošević era, and was all but destroyed by the NATO bombing campaign in 1999. Despite a possible deal with the Italian auto manufacturer, Fiat, to reopen the factory, the city currently suffers from widespread unemployment.
Since 1976, Kragujevac has grown as a university centre. The University of Kragujevac includes the Faculties of Medicine, Engineering, Law, Economics, Philology, Arts, Natural Sciences and Mathematics.
The architecture of Kragujevac displays a fusion of two different styles—traditional Turkish (nowadays almost completely gone) and 19th century Vienna Secession style. Modern conceptions also appear throughout the city, firstly in the shape of post-war concrete (usually apartments designed to house those left homeless during World War II), and secondly the up-to-date glass offices reflecting the ambitious business aspects of modern architects.
Posted 21 November 2011 - 15:51
Alūksne (German: Marienburg) is a town on the shores of Lake Alūksne in northeastern Latvia near the borders with Estonia and Russia. It is the seat of Alūksne municipality.
The region around Lake Alūksne was originally settled by Finnic-speaking tribes, and from the 8th-12th centuries by Latgalians. The date of settlement at the current location of the town, then known as Olysta, Alyst, and Volyst, is given in the chronicles of Pskov as 1284. The later name Alūksne comes from the Latgalian word olūksna, meaning a spring in the forest.
The Latgalian inhabitants of the settlement were conquered by the German crusaders of the Livonian Order in 1342. They built a castle named Marienburg (after Mary, the mother of Jesus) on a nearby island, which served to protect trade routes from Riga to Pskov. The town which developed near the castle also became known as Marienburg.
Marienburg was captured by the troops of Ivan IV of Russia in 1560 during the Livonian War. It was incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1582. The town became part of the Swedish Empire in 1629.
Ernst Glück, a Lutheran clergyman and the first translator of the Bible into Latvian, founded the first Latvian language schools in Vidzeme in 1683. It is now the Alūksne Museum The Russian army led by Sheremetyev captured the town during the Great Northern War in 1702, doing great damage to the area and deporting all the inhabitants, including Glück and his foster daughter, Marta Skavronska, who later became Empress Catherine I of Russia.
The town's island is known as Pils Island (Castle Island) and Maria Island. Alūksne Castle is now used as an open air theater.
Posted 22 November 2011 - 15:32
Have to admit more nations tham I thought in contention and more work than I expected, will have to consider if I need to reduce this in scope to just Russia, Norway, Finland and Sweden, which would be a pity but...
This post has been edited by Big Dave's Gusset: 22 November 2011 - 15:32
Posted 23 November 2011 - 14:32
Arad (Hungarian: Arad; Serbian: Арад/Arad) is the capital city of Arad County, in western Romania, in the Crişana region, on the river Mureş.
An important industrial center and transportation hub, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary, a training school for teachers and a music conservatory. The city has a population of approximately 172,000, making it the 13th largest city in Romania. Arad is the third largest city in the western part of the country, behind Timişoara and Oradea.
Arad was first mentioned in documents in the 11th century. The Mongol invasion of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1241 showed the importance of the fortifications on this place, to which were added in the second half of the 13th century more stone fortresses at Şoimoş (Solymos), Şiria (Világos), and Dezna (Dézna). The Ottoman Empire conquered the region from Hungary in 1551 and kept it until the Peace of Karlowitz of 1699. Arad became an eyalet center, which comprised the sanjaks of Arad, Lugoj, Kacaş, Beşlek and Yanova from 1660 till 1697, when it was captured by Austrians during Ottoman-Habsburg wars (1683–1699). After 1699, the city was ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy. According to 1720 data, the population of the city was composed of 177 Romanian families, 162 Serbian, and 35 Hungarian.
The new fortress was built between 1763 and 1783. Although it was small, it proved formidable having played a great role in the Hungarian struggle for independence in 1849. The city possesses a museum containing relics of this war of independence.
Bravely defended by the Austrian general Berger until the end of July 1849, it was captured by the Hungarian rebels, who made it their headquarters during the latter part of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. It was from Arad that Lajos Kossuth issued his famous proclamation (11 August 1849), and where he handed over the supreme military and civil power to Artúr Görgey.
The fortress was recaptured shortly after the surrender at Világos (now Şiria, Romania), with the surrender of general Artúr Görgey to the Russians. It became an ammunition depot. Thirteen rebel generals were executed there on 6 October 1849, by order of the Austrian general Julius Jacob von Haynau. These men are known collectively as the 13 Martyrs of Arad, and since then Arad is considered the "Hungarian Golgotha". One of the public squares contains a martyrs' monument, erected in their memory. It consists of a colossal figure of Hungary, with four allegorical groups, and medallions of the executed generals.
Arad enjoyed great economic development in the 19th century. In 1834 it was declared a "free royal town" by Emperor Francis I of Austria.
Aradu Nou / Neu Arad / Újarad ("New Arad"), situated on the opposite bank of the Mureş river, is a neighborhood of Arad, to which it is connected by the Trajan bridge. It was founded during the Turkish wars of the 17th century. The works erected by the Turks for the capture of the fortress of Arad formed the nucleus of the new settlement.
Arad has a humid continental climate with cold and snowy winters and hot summers.
|Climate data for Arad, Romania|
|Record high °C (°F)||18|
|Average high °C (°F)||1|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−1|
|Average low °C (°F)||−3|
|Record low °C (°F)||−25|
|Precipitationn mm (inches)||22.8|
|Avg. rainy days||11||11||11||10||12||11||9||8||7||9||12||12||123|
|Source: Weatherbase MSN Weather BBC Weather |
With a rich industrial and commercial tradition, Arad is one of the most prosperous towns in Romania. Thanks to numerous investments in industry and commerce, Arad has a booming economy.
The main industries are: freight and passenger railway cars, clothing and textiles, food processing, furniture and household accessories, equipment for the car industry, electric components, instrumentation and shoes.
Posted 24 November 2011 - 15:37
Posted 25 November 2011 - 19:13
Debrecen (pronounced debretsen) is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. Debrecen is the regional centre of the Northern Great Plain region and the seat of Hajdú-Bihar county.
The city was first mentioned by the name "Debrezun" in 1235. Theories say the name is of Cuman origin. In other languages the name of the city is the following : German Debrezin, Serbian Debr(e)cin Slovak Debrecín, Romanian Debreţin.
Before Hungarians founded Hungary a number of different tribes lived in the area. The town came into existence after some of the small villages of the area (Boldogasszonyfalva, Szentlászlófalva and Debreczun) merged. It experienced rapid development after the middle of the 13th century.
In 1361 Louis I of Hungary granted the citizens of Debrecen the right to choose the town's judge and council. This provided some opportunities for self-government for the town. By the early 16th century Debrecen was an important market town. King Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, as part of a treaty with Serbian ruler Stefan Lazarević, gave him the opportunity to rule Debrecen in September of 1411. A year after Lazarević's death in 1426, his role was taken over by his successor, Đurađ Branković. Between 1450 and 1507, it was a domain of the Hunyadi family.
During the Ottoman period, being close to the border and having no castle or city walls, Debrecen often found itself in difficult situations and the town was saved only by the diplomatic skills of its leaders. Sometimes the town was protected by the Ottoman empire, sometimes by the Catholic European rulers or by Francis II Rákóczi, prince of Transylvania. This led the town's citizens to be open-minded and Debrecen embraced the Protestant Reformation quite early, earning the moniker "Calvinist Rome". At this period the inhabitants of the town were mainly Hungarian Calvinists. Debrecen became sanjak between 1541 and 1693 and orderly bounded to eyalets of Budin (1541–1596), Eğri (1596–1660) and Varat (1660–1693) as "Debreçin".
In 1693 Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor elevated Debrecen to free royal town status. In 1715, the Roman Catholic Church returned to Debrecen, and the town gave them a place to build a church, so the Piarist monks could build the St. Anna Cathedral. By this time the town was an important cultural, commercial and agricultural centre, and many future scholars and poets attended its Protestant College (a predecessor of today's University of Debrecen and also of Debrecen Reformed Theological University).
In 1849 Debrecen was the capital of Hungary for a short time when the Hungarian revolutionary government fled there from Pest-Buda (modern-day Budapest.) In April 1849, the dethronization of Habsburgs (neglected after the fall of the revolution) and the independence of Hungary was proclaimed here by Lajos Kossuth at the Great (Calvinist) Church (Nagytemplom in Hungarian.) The last battle of the war of independence was also close to Debrecen. The Russians, allied to Habsburgs, defeated the Hungarian army close to the western part of the town.
After the war, Debrecen slowly began to prosper again. In 1857 the railway line between Budapest and Debrecen was completed, and Debrecen soon became a railway junction. New schools, hospitals, churches, factories, mills were built, banks and insurance companies settled in the city. The appearance of the city began to improve too: with new, taller buildings, parks and beautiful villas it no longer resembled a provincial town and began to look like a modern city. In 1884 Debrecen became the first Hungarian city to have a steam tramway.
After World War I, Hungary lost a considerable portion of its eastern territory to Romania, and Debrecen once again became situated close to the border of the country. It was occupied by the Romanian army for a short time in 1919. Tourism provided a way for the city to begin to prosper again. Many buildings (among them an indoor swimming pool and Hungary's first stadium) were built in the central park, the Nagyerdő ("Big Forest"), providing recreational facilities. The building of the university was completed. Hortobágy, a large pasture owned by the city, became a tourist attraction.
During World War II, Debrecen was almost completely destroyed, 70% of the buildings suffered damage, 50% of them were completely destroyed. A major battle involving combined arms, including several hundred tanks (Battle of Debrecen), occurred near the city in October 1944. After 1944 the reconstruction began and Debrecen became the capital of Hungary for a short time once again. The citizens began to rebuild their city, trying to restore its pre-war status, but the new, Communist government of Hungary had other plans. The institutions and estates of the city were taken into public ownership, private property was taken away. This forced change of the old system brought new losses to Debrecen; half of its area was annexed to nearby towns, and the city also lost its rights over Hortobágy. In 1952 two new villages – Ebes and Nagyhegyes – were formed from former parts of Debrecen, while in 1981 the nearby village Józsa was annexed to the city. The newly built blocks of flats provided housing for those who lost their homes during the war. In the following decades Debrecen was the third largest city of Hungary (behind Budapest and Miskolc), and became the second largest in the 1990s when the population of Miskolc decreased.
|Climate data for Debrecen|
|Average high °C (°F)||0.6|
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.5|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||37|
|Avg. precipitation days||8||6||7||8||9||10||8||7||5||5||8||8||89|
Posted 26 November 2011 - 18:32
Posted 27 November 2011 - 18:36
Posted 28 November 2011 - 18:49
Sodankylä (Inari Sami: Suáđigil, Northern Sami: Soađegilli, Skolt Sami: Suäˊđjel) is a municipality of Finland. It is located in the province of Lapland, Finland. The municipality has a population of 8,773 (31 January 2011) and covers an area of 12,415.46 square kilometres (4,793.64 sq mi) of which 718.65 km2 (277.47 sq mi) is water. The population density is 0.75 inhabitants per square kilometre (1.9 /sq mi). The municipality has two official languages: Finnish and Northern Sami.
Since 1986 Sodankylä has been home to the Midnight Sun Film Festival (Sodankylän elokuvajuhlat). The Jaeger Brigade of the Finnish Army is located in Sodankylä. Although Sodankylä and also Soađegilli translate to 'Village of War', the etymology of the name is from a surname rather than the word 'war'.
One of EISCAT's scientific radar receiver stations is located outside Sodankylä, at the site of Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory. The urban area around the observatory is known as Tähtelä, which translates as "Place of Stars", although the observatory does not look at stars.
Further Sodankylä is home to Luosto, which is a ski and safari resort in the heart of the national forest that specialises in authentic and uncommercialised Husky, Reindeer, Skidoo and Santa excursions.
|Climate data for Sodankylä|
|Record high °C (°F)||6.5|
|Average high °C (°F)||−9.5|
|Average low °C (°F)||−19.6|
|Record low °C (°F)||−49.5|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||35|
|Snowfall cm (inches)||54|
|Source: Climatological statistics for the normal period 1971–2000 Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory|
Posted 29 November 2011 - 15:55
Never been to Klagenfurt but have looked down on it from a ridge on the Karawanken mountains on the border with Slovenia
Klagenfurt am Wörthersee (Slovene: Celovec) is the capital of the federal state of Carinthia in Austria. With a population of over 90,000, it is the sixth-largest city in the country. The city is the bishop's seat of the Roman Catholic diocese of Gurk-Klagenfurt and home to the Alpen-Adria University.
The city of Klagenfurt is located in southern Austria, midway across the nation, near the international border. It rests in the middle region, almost as far from Innsbruck, to the west, as from Vienna, to the northeast.
Klagenfurt is elevated 446 m (1,463 ft) above sea level and covers an area of 120.11 km2 (46.4 sq mi). It is on the lake Wörthersee and on the Glan River. The city is surrounded by several forest-covered hills and mountains with heights of up to 1,000 m (3,300 ft), for example, Ulrichsberg. To the south is the Karawanken mountain range, which separates Carinthia from Slovenia and Italy.
Klagenfurt has a typical Continental climate, with a fair amount of fog throughout the autumn and winter. The rather cold winters are, however, broken by occasional warmer periods due to foehn wind from the Karawanken mountains to the south. The average temperature from 1961 and 1990 is 7.1 °C, while the average temperature in 2005 was 9.3 °C.
|Climate data for Klagenfurt|
|Average high °C (°F)||0.3|
|Average low °C (°F)||−7.2|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||30.9|
|Avg. precipitation days||5||5||6||8||10||12||10||9||7||7||7||5||91|
|Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN) |
Carinthia's eminent linguists Primus Lessiak and Eberhard Kranzmayer assumed that the city's name, which literally translates as "ford of lament" or "ford of complaints", had something to do with the superstitious thought that fateful fairies or demons tend to live around treacherous waters or swamps. In Old Slovene cviljovec is a place haunted by such a wailing female ghost or cvilya. Thus they assumed that Klagenfurt's name was a translation made by the German settlers of the original Slovene name of the neighbouring wetland. However, the earliest Slovene mention of Klagenfurt in the form of "v Zelouzi" ('in Celovec', the Slovene name for Klagenfurt) dating from 1615 is 400 years more recent and thus appears to be a translation from German. The latest interpretation, on the other hand, is that the Old Slovene cviljovec itself goes back to an Italic l'aquiliu meaning a place at or in the water, which would make the wailing-hag theory obsolete
Legend has it that Klagenfurt was founded after a couple of brave men had slain the abominable "Lindwurm", a winged dragon in the moors adjoining the lake, the staple diet of which is said to have been virgins, but which did not spurn the fat bull on a chain that the men had mounted on a strong tower. The feat is commemorated by a grandiose 9-ton Renaissance monument in the city centre.
Historically, the place was founded by the Spanheim Duke Herman as a stronghold sited across the commercial routes in the area. Its first mention dates from the late 12th century in a document in which Duke Ulric II. exempted St. Paul's Abbey from the toll charge "in foro Chlagenvurth". That settlement occupied an area that was subject to frequent flooding, so in 1246 Duke Herman's son, Duke Bernhard von Spanheim moved it to a safer position and is thus considered to be the actual founder of the market place, which in 1252 received a city charter.
There is a civic theatre-cum-opera house with professional companies, a professional symphony orchestra, a state conservatory and concert hall; there are musical societies such as Musikverein (founded in 1826) or Mozartgemeinde, a private experimental theatre company, the State Museum, a modern art museum and the Diocesan museum of religious art; the Artists' House, two municipal and several private galleries, a planetarium in Europa Park, literary institutions such as the Robert Musil House, and a reputable German-literature competition awarding the prestigious Ingeborg Bachmann Prize.
Klagenfurt is the home of a number of small but fine publishing houses, and several papers or regional editions are also published here including dailies such as "Kärntner Krone", "Kärntner Tageszeitung", "Kleine Zeitung".
Klagenfurt is a popular vacation spot with mountains both to the south and north, numerous parks and a series of 23 stately homes and castles on its outskirts. In summer the city is home to the Altstadtzauber (The Magic of the Old City) festival.